Environment and Climate

The ecosystem can be understood in the general sense as a set of interactions between the elements of the biosphere, which are the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the lithosphere, and also includes both the systems of water, air, soil, and minerals, in addition to plants and animals.

The problem of climate change is a critical issue in our time due to its wide-ranging effects, such as changes in temperature, rainfall rates, and weather patterns, which threaten global food production, in addition to the rise in the level of seas and oceans, which leads to an increase the risk of flooding, which in turn negatively affects human health, natural and ecological systems, water sources, human settlements, and biodiversity.

It can contribute to reducing climate change by encouraging and supporting investment in renewable energy, improving agriculture, and promoting plant-based diets.

Agriculture and livestock

P (39)

Many people depend on agriculture for a living, as it is essential in the economic, social, and recreational sectors, especially in rural environments, where it provides people with food and is a source of income for many farmers. Agriculture faces climate change’s effects on biodiversity, soil, and water quality.

Livestock is one of the essential agricultural economic pillars in rural areas. Its nutritional importance is not limited to the food it provides to humans but also contributes to producing fiber, fertilizer, and fuel. It also ensures that millions of farmers with limited resources and those who own animals remain in economic stability and sustainable agriculture.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene

The problem of water shortage is one of the most critical issues, so the delivery of safe drinking water is a priority in achieving global development, and with all attempts to achieve this goal, population growth, increasing pollution, and climate change due to global warming have led to the continuation of this phenomenon increasingly during the twenty-first century.

Improving the infrastructure of water distribution systems and sanitation and managing water resources ensures justice in distribution, reduces water waste and protects people’s health. Poor infrastructure exacerbates water shortage problems and increases the chances of spreading diseases transmitted by contaminated water.